Tuesday 30 June 2015


SPECIAL THANKS to Elie Rizk for assistance and supplying the main image [Lotus F1 Team E23 Hybrid] 

"Hamilton skips test" - By Chris Rathbone

Weekly Formula 1 cartoons by Chris Rathbone... Get your hands on prints, mugs and t-shirts of your favourite drivers from the world of Motorsport.
Twitter - @R4THBONE 
Website - http://rathbonecreative.com 

Mercedes AMG Petronas: The Art of Pit Stops

What defines a ‘Good’ pit stop?
It’s easy to believe that pit stops are all about speed and, of course, every team works hard to push for the fastest possible times. But speed should never come at the cost of reliability. In practice, a top crew can change all four wheels in around two seconds. However, finding a tenth here and there in the stop makes little difference relative to the potential loss through an error. If a wheel is not correctly attached at the first attempt, a number of scenarios can emerge. If the crew notices the error in time, the car will be held longer in the box while the wheel nut is re-attached, costing time and likely track position. If the car leaves the box with a loose wheel but stops in pit lane or makes it back around the lap, an unsafe release penalty will apply. This will be, at a minimum, a 10 second stop-and-go penalty, with the possibility of a grid penalty at the following race also being imposed. Or, in the worst-case scenario, the wheel detaches completely and the car is forced to retire. These are the sorts of situations teams must try to mitigate against.

In terms of time, what is the best measure of a good stop?
The most comprehensive measurement of pit stop performance is not simply the length of time spent in the box itself – but between the timing beams on pit lane entry and exit. These are the same for everyone and provide a uniform analysis of the time taken to complete a full pit stop procedure, covering both team and driver performance. The times highlighted on TV are clocked using the naked eye and a stopwatch. They also tend to highlight the single aspect of time spent in the box as the key element of a stop. However, by the timing beams, the average ranking across all races of the 2015 season so far sees the MERCEDES AMG PETRONAS crew leading the way – and with no errors or loss of position as a direct result of pit stop procedure (see table below).

We’ve mentioned both driver and team performance here: what are the main challenges for each?
Pit stops are possibly the most visual evidence of why Formula One is a team sport. For the driver, they’re being asked to position the car accurately to within half a wheel diameter – or the size of a standard office ruler – at up to 80km/h without locking up. This really is a phenomenal display of car control. For the crew, they are required to keep their cool under intense pressure while knelt on the ground, inches away from a car approaching at the sort of speed a truck would do on a motorway. The people around the car during a pit stop don’t change depending on the driver. They’re a collection of crew members spanning a variety of roles within the race team. Not only do they undertake physical training to prepare for the demands of performing a sequence of good stops, they also carry out quite literally thousands of practice stops every season. A good, clean, safe stop requires total trust and confidence from all parties moving in unison. When a pit crew has confidence, that’s when they start to naturally build up speed. Reliability builds confidence, confidence builds speed.

How can a driver impact on pit stop performance?
There are three main elements to driver pit stop performance. The first is how accurately they can brake to the limiter line. In the ideal scenario, speed has been stable for a tenth or two as the car crosses that marker. Braking too early requires acceleration back up to the limit, braking too late will mean the car does not slow sufficiently to cross the line under the limit. The second element is braking into the box – enough to stop on the marks but not so early that the driver has to come off the brakes and then back onto them. Finally, there is the start from the box. The most crucial of these, however, is the entry to the box itself. Between a driver who comes into the box smoothly without locking the wheels and one who locks up and stops long, the difference can be significant. Stopping 30cm long, for example, can cost up to eight tenths.

What causes this loss?
If the car is off the marks by enough distance in any direction, the entire crew must adjust their positions accordingly, which costs time. As mentioned previously, the worst case is stopping too long. 30cm, which would be classed as a long way out of position, is a significant distance relative to the reach of an average human arm. At this discrepancy, the human ability to correct for the error disappears. The prime example is the gun men, as the wheel nut is now physically further out of their natural reach. In the most extreme case the gun men have to drop the gun from position, shuffle along by 15–20cm on their knees, bring the gun back up to position and connect to the nut.

What other factors can affect pit stop times?
Pit lane speed limits are another area of variation. Drivers are limited to 60km/h rather than 80km/h at certain events as it is too dangerous to be running any faster – and times will generally be longer as a result. In Melbourne, where the 60km/h limit is enforced for 289m, the loss is 21 seconds. In Montreal – a pit lane limited to 80km/h for 417m – that loss is just 17 seconds. Where races are border line on strategy, this becomes significant. Depending on track position, at some circuits it may be faster over a race distance to do more laps on a worn set of tyres than make an extra stop, as the pit lane loss is simply too great. The opposite is true of somewhere like Montreal, where pit lane time is quick enough to open up strategic options where the difference is marginal.

Differences in grip levels from the pit lane surface itself can also be a factor. Singapore gives the best traction of any pit lane on the calendar. Here, the organisers cover the ground with a layer of paint, followed by a sand-like material, then seal it all in with more paint. It’s like driving on sandpaper, giving excellent grip. Other circuits, particularly those which are not used too often, can start with very low levels of grip at the beginning of a weekend. Performing pit stops will naturally aid this by ensuring more rubber is laid down – however in certain cases the drivers are requested to perform burnouts in the box to lay extra rubber down.

Monday 29 June 2015

'Ferrari Struggle' - Chris Rathbone

Weekly Formula 1 cartoons by Chris Rathbone... Get your hands on prints, mugs and t-shirts of your favourite drivers from the world of Motorsport.
Twitter - @R4THBONE 
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Monday 22 June 2015

'Cumming Together' - By Jake Davis

This fantastic weekly F1 Toon was designed and created by Jake Davis Creative. Prints are available in sizes A4, A3 and A2. Commissions are also available. If you would like to order a PRINT of this fantastic F1 Toon feel free to contact him via:
                                                                                                                     E-mail - davisjake@hotmail.co.uk
                                                                                                                     Twitter - @JakeDDCreative

Monday 15 June 2015

"Formula What??" - By Jake Davis

This fantastic weekly F1 Toon was designed and created by Jake Davis Creative. Prints are available in sizes A4, A3 and A2. Commissions are also available. If you would like to order a PRINT of this fantastic F1 Toon feel free to contact him via:
                                                                                                                     E-mail - davisjake@hotmail.co.uk
                                                                                                                     Twitter - @JakeDDCreative


Part One: The A to Z of Formula One

This series has been a long time coming and I have had lots of issues along the way. But I now would like to introduce you the first installment of the A to Z of Formula One, a SIX PART series. It all starts now.....

- A - 

Abu Dhabi
It was announced in early 2007 that Abu Dhabi would host Formula One Grand Prix. The first race took place on November 1, 2009, held at the Hermann Tilke designed Yas Marina Circuit. The inaugural race was Formula One's first ever day-night race, starting at 17:00 local time. Floodlights used to illuminate the circuit were switched on from the start of the event to ensure a seamless transition from daylight to darkness.

Accident Data Recorder (ADR) 
A data recorder that has to be installed in all Formula One or racing cars with the exception of test runs in which only a single team participates. The ADR is intended to provide information on possible causes in case of an accident with the aim of improving safety and preventing the accident from happening again. The box is positioned so that it is always accessible, without having to remove any parts of the car.

It’s an interaction of air with solid bodies moving through it. The basic rule when designing cars for Formula 1 is simply to create as much downforce and as little air resistance as possible.

It can be described as a type of upside-down wing used to keep the car firmly on the track at high speed. Ground-effects design shapes the body to provide downforce as well.

Air Box
The air inlet behind the driver’s head. The air box channels the air necessary for the combustion process to the engine.

Air Resistance
The resistance of the air to forward movement, sometimes called "drag". This is a factor of the shape of the vehicle including any protruding objects, the amount of turbulence at the rear of the vehicle, the texture of the surface, and the amount of air going through the vehicle for cooling and ventilation. The faster you go, the greater the air friction is (proportional to velocity squared). 

Fernando Alonso Díaz is a double Formula One World Champion who is currently racing for McLaren-Honda. Alonso started in karting from the age of 3. His first win came at the 2001 Australian Grand Prix and has to date scored 1767 points. In 2010, Alonso joined Scuderia Ferrari. Although Alonso did not reach his goal of winning a third title while at Ferrari he managed to finish runner up on three occasions (2010, 2012 & 2013) as well as winning eleven Grand Prix with the team and clearly beating his team mates for points in all five seasons. His strongest title challenges were in 2010 and 2012, finishing both seasons just adrift of title winner Sebastian Vettel. Alonso announced his decision to join McLaren-Honda in November 2014. Vettel won the 2015 Malaysian Grand Prix, prompting Alonso to once again a couple of weeks later publicly defend his decision saying that it was 'difficult to keep the trust' amid Ferrari's attempts to persuade him the 2015 car was going to be a big improvement. He said that he would only suggest the move was a mistake should Ferrari actually win the title in November. Having been lapped and outside the points in the Chinese Grand Prix, Alonso suggested he was just happy to finish the race to gather information about the car. 

Anti-lock Braking System (ABS)
An electronic system which prevents the wheels from locking during heavy braking. Using sensors, a control unit determines if the wheels are starting to lock and brake pressure is then reduced. The system allows the driver to maintain steering control under heavy braking and reduces braking distances. 

The point that is used for the ideal racing line when a driver clips the inner radius of a corner. 

An action a team takes on behalf of its driver if the team feels that the driver has been unfairly penalised or punished by the stewards.

Aquaplaning is what happens when there is more water between the tyres and the road than can be displaced by the tyre tread. The car ‘floats’ and consequently cannot be controlled by the driver. 

Maurizio Arrivabene is the current team principal of Scuderia Ferrari F1 team. He was appointed in November 2014, replacing Marco Mattiacci in the role. Arrivabene comes from a marketing and sales background.

Armco Barrier
A metal barrier fitted at the sides of racing tracks, designed to absorb the impact of a car at high speed. It is actually the brand name of a crash barrier company which has now been adopted as a general term.

The Australian Grand Prix is the oldest surviving race held in Australia having been held 79 times since it was first run at Phillip Island in 1928. Since 1985, the race has been a round of the FIA Formula One World Championship and is currently held at the Melbourne Grand Prix Circuit at Albert Park in Melbourne. It became part of the Formula One World Championship in 1985 and was held at the Adelaide Street Circuit in Adelaide, South Australia, from that year to 1995, before moving to Melbourne in1996. The winner of the race is presented with a circular plate, recently named the Jack Brabham trophy named for the three-time winner in a design based on the steering wheel of one of Brabham's racing cars and a perpetual trophy, the Lex Davison trophy, named for four-time winner and dates back to the 1960s. The Australian Grand Prix is the first round of the Championship, having been the first race of each year, excluding 2006 and2010, since the event moved to Melbourne. During its years in Adelaide, the Australian Grand Prix was the final round of the Championship, replacing the Portuguese Grand Prix in that respect. As the final round of the season, the Grand Prix hosted a handful of memorable races, most notably the 1986 and 1994 races which saw the 1986 and 1994 World Drivers' Championships decided.

The Austrian Grand Prix is a FIA sanctioned race which was held in 1964, 1970–1987 and 1997–2003. In July 2013, it was reported that Red Bull had reached an agreement with Bernie Ecclestone to revive the Austrian Grand Prix after a ten-year absence from the calendar. The race, to be held at the Red Bull Ring (which is what the A1-Ring was renamed after being purchased by Red Bull, the track layout is still the same as before), was given a provisional date of July 2014. And on December 6, the officially released calendar included the Austrian Grand Prix on it.

It’s easily described as an oven but technically its a pressure vessel in which vacuum packed composite components are cured at a precise temperature and pressure. This procedure lends the composite components their high strength while maintaining low weight.

- B -

A car that gets a blue flag to let someone pass by because he or she is a lap up.

Bahrain hosts the fourth round in the FIA Formula World Championship. The first Grand Prix took place at the Bahrain International Circuit on 4 April 2004. The 2014 race was held as a night race under floodlights. It became the second Formula One night race after the Singapore Grand Prix, to commemorate the tenth anniversary of the first staging of the Grand Prix. It was won by Lewis Hamilton. Shortly after the Formula One February 2014 testing, Grand Prix organizers for Bahrain announced a decision to name the first corner of the iconic track after former seven-time champion German driver Michael Schumacher in honor of his achievements and also in support after the driver suffered an almost fatal skiing accident late December 2013.

Fireproof face mask made of Nomex®, a flame retardant synthetic fibre. It is worn under the helmet.

Weights fixed around the car to maximise its balance and in order to alter it to the minimum weight limit. If a car is correctly balanced it helps the driver to extract the maximum out of the car, as it would help when positioning the car through corners. 

This is the part of the car body mounted vertically between the front wheels and the sidepods. It is an aerodynamic panel to help ensure there is a smooth airflow around the side of the car and into the sidepods.

The Belgian Grand Prix forms part of the Formula One World Championship and hosts the 12th round of the championship. The first national race of Belgium was held in 1925 at the Spa region's race course, an area of the country that had been associated with motor sport since the very early years of racing. To accommodate Grand Prix motor racing, the Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps race course was built in 1921 but it was only used for motorcycle racing until 1924. After the 1923 success of the new 24 hours of Le Mans in France, the Spa 24 Hours, a similar 24-hour endurance race, was run at the Spa track. The Belgian Grand Prix was designated the European Grand Prix six times between 1925 and 1973, when this title was an honorary designation given each year to one grand prix race in Europe. It is one of the most popular races on the Formula One calendar, due to the scenic and historical Spa-Francorchamps circuit being a favorite of drivers and fans.

Belts (tyre wall)
A band wrapped around tyre walls in order to prevent cars burying themselves into or under the protective wall.

Black and White Diagonal Halved Flag
Warns of unsporting behavior and usually appears with a driver number. May be followed by a black flag if the driver does not heed the warning.

Black Flag
The driver must come into the pits immediately, usually because he has broken the rules and will be disqualified. At the Singapore night race, in which the flag system is replaced by panels of lights, the black flag is indicated by illuminating a white border with the rest of the panel left black.

Black Flag with Orange Circle
Indicates that the car has a mechanical problem that could endanger themselves or others and the driver must return to his pit immediately. They can then rejoin the race following repairs.

Blistering of the tyres occur as a result of a tyre experiencing high internal temperatures. When it becomes too hot in one area it can cause gasification of ingredients and form a blister, a crater-like appearance, in the tread area of the tyre. The selection of an incorrect tyre compound, tyre pressure that is too high, or an improperly set-up car can cause blistering. 

Blue Flag
Are often shown to a driver to indicate that a faster car is behind him and trying to overtake. This flag is shown to both lapped cars and those racing. A lapped car must allow the faster car past after seeing a maximum of five blue flags or risk being penalised. 

The shoe used in Formula One are ankle boots made of soft, cushioned leather. They have thin rubber soles with good grip to prevent drivers’ feet from slipping off the pedals. 

Valtteri Bottas was born on 28 August 1989 in Nastola, Finland and is currently competing in Formula One with Williams. He currently resides in Monaco. At the first race of the 2014 season in Australia, Bottas qualified 10th and finished 6th, after recovering from a crash earlier in the race. He was later promoted to 5th after Daniel Ricciardo was disqualified from 2nd position. At the Austrian Grand Prix, Bottas qualified 2nd, his best grid position in Formula One, and achieved his first podium in the sport, finishing third behind Nico Rosberg (1st) and Lewis Hamilton (2nd).  At the German Grand Prix, he qualified second and ended the race in the same position despite a late challenge from Hamilton. After achieving three more podiums in Belgium, Russia (where he set his first fastest lap of a race) and Abu Dhabi (part of Williams' first double podium since the 2005 Monaco Grand Prix), Bottas finished 4th overall in the championship, beating the likes of former world champion Sebastian Vettel and Fernando Alonso.

Brake Balance
A better balance when braking, the driver can adjust the brake force distribution between the front and the rear axle even during the race via a dial on the steering wheel.

Brake Duct
A an air duct that directs air onto the brakes to cool them down. These can vary from race to race, following the needs of brake cooling, as one circuit may demand more brake performance than another. But teams have now made the Brake Ducts, an aerodynamic piece using little winglets to channel air around the wheels. 

The regulations call for two separate, independent braking circuits operated from a single pedal, one circuit for the front wheels and the second for the rear. Brake discs must have a maximum thickness of 28 millimetres and a maximum diameter of 278 millimetres. Anti-lock systems are prohibited, as are cooling systems using fluids.

The Brazilian Grand is currently held at the Autódromo José Carlos Pace in Interlagos neighborhood, Socorro district, São Paulo. In the final race of the 2008 season in Brazil, Lewis Hamilton became the youngest Formula One world champion, to that point in Formula One history. After adopting a conservative strategy without risks for most of the race to secure at least 5th place, and the title, a late-race rain shower caused unexpected trouble. Five Brazilian drivers have won the Brazilian Grand Prix, with Emerson Fittipaldi, Nelson Piquet, Ayrton Senna and Felipe Massa each winning twice, and Jose Carlos Pace winning once. The most ever is by the Frenchman Alain Prost, who has won it 6 times (including 5 times at Jacarepaguá). Argentine driver Carlos Reutemann and Michael Schumacher have both won 4 times. On 10 October 2013 it was announced that the contract for the Brazilian Grand Prix had been extended until 2022

The British Grand Prix is currently held at the Silverstone Circuit near the village of Silverstone in Northamptonshire in England. The British and Italian Grand Prix are the oldest continuously staged Formula One World Championship Grand Prix. It was designated the European Grand Prix five times between 1950 and 1977, when this title was an honorary designation given each year to one Grand Prix race in Europe. All British Grand Prix dating back to 1926 have been held in England; where the British motor racing industry is primarily located. A dispute between Silverstone's owners, the British Racing Drivers' Club (BRDC), and the Formula One authorities in 2003 over the funding of necessary improvements to the track's facilities led to doubts over the future of the race. In October 2004 the British Grand Prix was left off the preliminary race schedule for 2005 because the BRDC refused to pay the race fee demanded by Bernie Ecclestone. However, after months of negotiation between the BRDC, Ecclestone and the Formula One constructors, a deal was made for the Grand Prix to be held at Silverstone until 2009. 2008 saw Briton Lewis Hamilton win for McLaren; and on the 4 of July, it was announced that Donington Park had been awarded the contract to host the British Grand Prix for 10 years from 2010. However, Donington failed to secure the necessary funding to host the race, and its contract was terminated in November 2009. On 7 December 2009, Silverstone signed a 17-year contract to host the British Grand Prix from 2010 onwards. The 2010 race saw a new circuit configuration being used, using the brand new "Arena" layout. For 2011 a new pit complex was built between Club and Abbey Corners, to where the start/finish line was moved. Silverstone is still a very fast circuit- with average speeds up in the 145 mph range for Formula 1 cars; one of the highest average speeds on the F1 calendar.

Jenson Alexander Lyons Button was born Frome, Somerset and is currently signed to McLaren-Honda. He was the 2009 Formula One World Champion, driving for Brawn GP Team and to date has scored 1202 points. Jenson began karting at the age of 8 and achieved early success, before progressing to car racing in the British Formula Ford Championship and the British Formula Three Championship. He first drove in Formula One with Williams F1 for the 2000 season. The following year he switched to Benetton, which in 2002 became Renault, and then for the 2003 season he moved to BAR. In 2004 he finished 3rd in the World Drivers' Championship, with only the two Ferraris’ ahead of him. BAR were subsequently renamed Honda for the 2006 season, during which Button won his first Grand Prix in Hungary, after 113 races. Following the withdrawal of Honda from the sport in December 2008, he was left without a drive for the 2009 season, until Ross Brawn led a management buyout of the team in February 2009, and Button suddenly found himself in a highly competitive, Mercedes-engined car. He went on to win a record-equalling six of the first seven races of the 2009 season, securing the World Drivers' Championship at the Brazilian Grand Prix, having led on points all season; his success also helped Brawn GP to secure the World Constructors' Championship. For 2010, he moved to McLaren, partnering fellow British racer and former World Champion Lewis Hamilton. After finishing fifth for the team in 2010, Button finished the 2011 season as runner-up. In 2012 he took his first pole for McLaren at the 2012 Belgian Grand Prix. He spent a fifth season with the McLaren team in 2014, his 15th in Formula One.  Jenson Button remains at McLaren for the 2015, as he helps McLaren and Honda develop their car for this season. Button scored McLaren’s first points at the Monaco GP securing 4 points for an eighth place finish.
- C -

The Canadian Grand Prix has been part of the Formula One World Championship since 1967. It was first staged at Mosport Park in Bowmanville, Ontario as a sports car event, before alternating between Mosport and Circuit Mont-Tremblant, Quebec after Formula One took over the event. After 1971, safety concerns led to the Grand Prix moving permanently to Mosport. In 1978, after similar safety concerns with Mosport, the Canadian Grand Prix moved to its current home on Île Notre-Dame in Montreal. Scheduled after qualifying in 2014, the Grand Prix organisers announced they had agreed to a 10-year extension to keep the Canadian Grand Prix at Circuit Gilles Villeneuve through 2024.

Camber (Wheel)
The amount that the top of the tyre leans into, or away from the car. It's not simply a fixed angle, however, as the tyre's relationship with the road changes as the suspension moves. Ideally, you want a camber that keeps the tyre straight up and down when you are driving straight, and leans the tyre during cornering. 

Camber (Circuit)
The angle of the track's surface relative to the horizontal across the circuit's width, most notably in banked corners.

Carbon Brake Disc
Formula One cars are equipped with brake discs manufactured of carbon fibres. This gives a fair decrease in weight over steel, but also impressively short brake distances. Carbon disks operate best above 800°C. Considering that overheating may lead to malfunction, cooling and brake ducts are crucial.

Carbon Fibre
A construction material used in Formula 1 to construct cars. The monocoque, for example, is made of epoxy resin reinforced with carbon fibre. These materials, when laminated together, give great rigidity and strength, but are very lightweight. 

The Cascade pushes airflow over and around the wheel/tyre in order to better utilise the tyres wake increasing the performance of the components downstream.  The Cascade of course due to it's shape creates a smaller quantity of downforce but this is not it's primary function.

The central part of a Formula 1 car, with the main component being the monocoque. All the other components are connected to the strong, lightweight monocoque. It is made from carbon fibre and epoxy polymer forming a composite material. These are bonded to aluminium and Nomex® honeycombs to form a sandwich panel shell structure. The moulding and binding process takes place within anautoclave at high levels of pressure and heat.

Chequered Flag
Indicates to drivers that the session has ended. During practice and qualifying sessions it is waved at the allotted time, during the race it is shown first to the winner and then to every car that crosses the line behind him.

A tight combination of two corners in opposite directions. They are often used to break up long, straight stretches of a circuit for safety reasons, forcing drivers to reduce their speed.

The Chinese Grand Prix is currently held at the Shanghai International Circuit designed by Hermann Tilke. When completed in 2004, it was the most expensive Formula One circuit facility, costing $240 million. The track is 5.451 km long and features one of the trickiest corners combinations on the Formula One calendar, comparable to that of Istanbul Park's turn 8, also designed by Tilke. Turn 1 and 2 are a very demanding 270 degree, right-handed corner combination that requires a lot of speed whilst entering and it tightens up towards the end.

Clean Air
Can be experienced only by the car in front, the air behind the leader and the rest of the cars is turbulent and can affect the aerodynamics needed to achieve the smoothest drive.

Clerk of the Course
The person ultimately responsible for all operational on-track issues related to the running of a motor race meeting.

The driver's “office”. The cockpit must be designed so that the driver can get out easily within five seconds. The width of the cockpit must be 45 centimetres at the steering wheel and 35 centimetres at the pedals. For safety reasons, no fuel, oil or water lines may pass through the cockpit.

Non-metallic, very light mixture of various materials including Kevlar, carbon fibre and Nomex®. 

Cost Cap
Plans to control costs continue within Formula One. The infamous Resource Restriction Agreement was broken when both Red Bull and Ferrari withdrew from the process, thereby making it utterly meaningless, and now an FIA-approved version seems to be having trouble getting off the ground. Teams have gone into numerous meetings regarding cost caps and yet nothing has been implemented. 

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
Technology has permanently transformed the development processes in Formula 1. CFD makes the airflows surrounding the vehicle visible on the computer, and at the same time shows the effects of individual vehicle parts on each other and on the aerodynamics. So the engineers can simulate these effects without even having to build the parts first. 

Computer Aided Design (CAD)
This involves intelligent computer programmes which provide efficiency and speed and make the designers’ work much easier. 

Concorde Agreement
This agreement specifies the rights and obligations of the teams and the FIA. It also calls for unanimity for important decisions. 

The connecting rod in an engine connects the piston to the crankshaft. It can rotate at both ends so that its angle can change as the piston moves and the crankshaft rotates.

Crash Test
Mandatory stress tests for vehicle components demanded by the FIA. The front impact crash test is done at a speed of 54 km/h (33.6 mph), the lateral at 36 km/h (22.4 mph) and the rear at an impact speed of 39.6 km/h (24.6 mph). There are also loading tests for the impact structure, survival cell, gearbox and roll-over bar. Tests are carried out under the supervision of the FIA, usually at the Cranfield Impact Centre in Bedfordshire, England.

A cylindrical bore in the metal engine block in which the pistons move up and down and the combustion of the fuel air mixture takes place. Currently in Formula 1, the diameter of each cylinder may not exceed 98mm and engines must have 8 cylinders.

- D - 

Control’s the spring oscillations of the suspension system. The spring absorbs the energy of the impact, whilst the damper releases the energy, in the form of heat, to prevent an oscillating force from building up.

Mechanical gears that equalises the power between the left and right drive wheels, particularly to compensate the speed differences between the outer and inner wheels when cornering.

The rear section of the car's floor or undertray where the air flowing under the car exits. Rising to the rear, the design of the diffuser is crucial as it controls the speed at which the air exits. The faster air exits, the lower the air pressure under the car, and the more downforce the car generates.

Drivers are now permitted to carry out celebratory victory donut, provided their antics do not delay the podium ceremony! 

Downforce is what presses Formula 1 cars down onto the ground. It is generated by low pressure conditions under the car as well as by the angle of attack of the front and rear wings, and enhances the grip. Especially on slower circuits, this effect permits higher cornering speeds.

The aerodynamic resistance experienced as a car travels forwards.

Drive Through Penalty
A penalty applied to a driver during a race, often for an offence such as passing under yellow flags. Drivers must enter the pit lane, drive through it complying with the speed limit, and re-join the race without stopping. Once a driver's team has been informed by the stewards, the driver may not cross the start-finish line more than three times before entering the pitlane. If the penalty is awarded in the last 5 laps or after the race, a Time Penalty of 5 to 10 seconds will be applied to the driver's final time instead. 

Driver Briefing
A meeting with the drivers and representatives from their teams convened by the race director before every grand prix. The discussions focus on current issues such as special features of the respective track or changes to the rules or weekend format.

Driver Numbers
Drivers were requested in 2014 to select a race number, between 2 and 99, for the duration of their F1 career. Number 1 is reserved for the current World Champion, though he is not obliged to use it. If more than one driver requested the same number, priority was given to the driver who finished highest in the 2013 Championship. The number must be clearly visible on the driver’s crash helmet and on the front of the car. 

Dry Sump
A lubrication system in which the engine's supply of oil is pumped to the engine from a separate vessel. This allows the engine to be installed lower in the chassis lowering the centre of gravity. It also eliminates the problem of oil starvation which conventional systems would suffer when subjected to the extreme acceleration, braking, and cornering forces of a Formula 1 car.

- E -

Bernie Ecclestone is the chief executive of the Formula One Group, which manages Formula One and controls the commercial rights to the sport, and  part-owns Delta Topco, the ultimate parent company of Group.

Energy Recovery System
A greater proportion of the car’s power now comes from ERS (formerly KERS). You might hear these referred to as MGU’s – Motor Generator Units. As well as generating energy under braking, ERS units also generate power using waste heat from the engine’s single turbocharger. Unlike the previous KERS – which gave drivers an extra 60kW for just over six seconds per lap – ERS provides about an extra 120kW for 33 seconds per lap (through engine mapping). To compensate for the extra power generating under braking by ERS, an electronic ‘fly-by-wire’ rear braking control system is allowed. 

The vertical panel attached to the side of a wing. Those at the front are carefully shaped to control the airflow around the front wheels.
Electronic Control Unit (ECU)
An electronic control unit monitors and manages all aspects of a Formula 1 car's electrical systems. Since 2008, Formula 1 cars have used a single standard unit for all teams.

Marcus Ericsson  was born on 2 September 1990 in Kumla, Sweden. After a successful début in car racing in 2007 which saw him take the British Formula BMW title, he moved up into the British F3 After finishing as one of the top rookies in the category, Ericsson turned his attentions to the All-Japan F3 Championship where he won the championship in his debut year. In 2010, he moved up to the GP2 Series where he secured one victory during his maiden campaign for Super Nova Racing. Between 2011 and 2012, Ericsson drove for iSport. Ericsson completed the 2013 GP2 season with DAMS, and debuted in Formula One in 2014 with Caterham F1. At the 2014 United States Grand Prix it was announced Sauber F1 Team had signed Marcus Ericsson for 2015. In his first race for Sauber at the 2015 Australian Grand Prix, Ericsson finished 8th recording the first points-scoring finish by a Swedish driver since Stefan Johansson.

2.4-litre normally-aspirated V8 engine (560Kw+) revving to 18 000rolm replaced with 1.6-litre V6 Turbo engine (447kW), revving to a maximum of 15 000 rpm. 

Engine Mapping
A process used to electronically adjust an engine's performance characteristics, such as valve opening and closing and ignition timing. Engine mappings can change completely from circuit to circuit depending upon the nature of the track although drivers can select different maps during the race with a control in the cockpit. For example, as well as performance maps there will be a fuel saving map for use behind the safety car.

Engines must now exhaust through a single tailpipe on the car’s centerline, which must be angled upward to prevent gasses from providing aerodynamic effect. No bodywork is allowed to be placed behind the tailpipes. 

[Please Note: If you would like to add anything to the list leave a comment below with the element and a description.]

Monday 1 June 2015

GumBall 3000 - By Jake Davis

This fantastic weekly F1 Toon was designed and created by Jake Davis Creative. Prints are available in sizes A4, A3 and A2. Commissions are also available. If you would like to order a PRINT of this fantastic F1 Toon feel free to contact him via:
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Canadian Grand Prix: The Wall of Champions

The first thing that comes to mind when thinking about the Canadian Grand Prix is the "Wall of Champions". What makes the "Wall of Champions" so synonymous with the Canadian Grand Prix and why has it been called that?

It all started back in 1999 during the Canadian Grand Prix, a race which saw no less than four crashes at the final chicane on the high speed circuit. 

The final corner of Circuit Gilles Villeneuve became well known for crashes involving former World Champions including British hero Damon Hill, title contender Michael Schumacher and home favourite Jacques Villeneuve all become victims of the tricky right to left kink.  

The three drivers were out the race on the spot and the new name for the “Bienvenue au Quebec” [Welcome to Quebec] wall came into fruition: the "Wall of Champions". 

The wall became ironically known as the "Wall of Champions". The wall also was involved in a crash with Ricardo Zonta, who was, at the time, the reigning FIA GT sports car champion. In recent years, GP2 Champion Nico Rosberg and CART Champion Juan Pablo Montoya have also fallen victim to the wall. In 2011 Friday practice the wall claimed reigning F1 Champion Sebastian Vettel.

Before the wall was named it also claimed victims such as 1992 World Sportscar Champion and long time F1 driver Derek Warwick who spectacularly crashed his Arrows-Megatron during qualifying for the 1988 Canadian Grand Prix.

Full list of victims:
Alexander Wurz in 1997.
Damon Hill in 1999.
Michael Schumacher in 1999.
Jacques Villeneuve in 1997 and 1999.
Ricardo Zonta in 1999.
Nico Rosberg, 2005 GP2 Champion.
Nick Heidfeld in 2001.
Rubens Barrichello in 2002.
Jenson Button in 2005.
Tiago Monteiro in 2006.
Juan Pablo Montoya in 2006.
Vitantonio Liuzzi in 2007.
Kamui Kobayashi in 2010.
Sebastian Vettel in 2011.
Bruno Senna in 2012.
Pastor Maldonado in 2012.